Different type of software testing Method

1. White Box testing:  (also known as Clear Box Testing, Open Box Testing, Glass Box Testing, Transparent Box Testing, Code-Based Testing or Structural Testing):
White box testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/design/implementation of the item being tested is known to the tester.

Different Types and Techniques of white box testing 
Unit Testing : The developer carries out unit testing in order to check if the particular module or unit of code is working fine. The Unit Testing comes at the very basic level as it is carried out as and when the unit of the code is developed or a particular functionality is built.
Static and dynamic Analysis: Static analysis involves going through the code in order to find out any possible defect in the code. Dynamic analysis involves executing the code and analyzing the output.
Statement Coverage: In this type of testing the code is executed in such a manner that every statement of the application is executed at least once. It helps in assuring that all the statements execute without any side effect.
Branch Coverage:  No software application can be written in a continuous mode of coding, at some point we need to branch out the code in order to perform a particular functionality. Branch coverage testing helps in validating of all the branches in the code and making sure that no branching leads to abnormal behavior of the application.
Security Testing: Security Testing is carried out in order to find out how well the system can protect itself from unauthorized access, hacking – cracking, any code damage etc. which deals with the code of application. This type of testing needs sophisticated testing techniques.
Mutation Testing:  A kind of testing in which, the application is tested for the code that was modified after fixing a particular bug/defect. It also helps in finding out which code and which strategy of coding can help in developing the functionality effectively.

Advantages of White Box Testing:
  • As the knowledge of internal coding structure is prerequisite, it becomes very easy to find out which type of input/data can help in testing the application effectively.
  • Its helps in optimizing the code and in removing the extra lines of code, which can bring in hidden defects.
Disadvantages of White Box Testing:
  • As knowledge of code and internal structure is a prerequisite, a skilled tester is needed to carry out this type of testing, which increases the cost. 
  • It is nearly impossible to look into every bit of code to find out hidden errors, which may create problems, resulting in failure of the application.
2. Black box testing: BLACK BOX TESTING, also known as Behavioral Testing, is a software testing method in which the internal structure/design/implementation of the item being tested is not known to the tester. These tests can be functional or non-functional, though usually functional.

The purpose of black box testing
Black-box testing checks that the user interface and user inputs and outputs all work correctly. Part of this is that error handling must work correctly. It's used in functional and system testing..
Example : an operating system like Windows, a website like Google, a database like Oracle or even your own custom application. Under Black Box Testing, you can test these applications by just focusing on the inputs and outputs without knowing their internal code implementation.

Types of Black Box Testing:

There are several phases of which are segregated into different types:
Regression testing: Regression testing verifies that recent code changes haven't altered or destroyed the already existing functionality of a system. Regression testing examples include iteration regression and full regression, and both can be covered with manual and automated test cases.
Unit testing: UNIT TESTING is a level of software testing where individual units/ components of a software are tested. The purpose is to validate that each unit of the software performs as designed. A unit is the smallest testable part of any software. It usually has one or a few inputs and usually a single output.
Beta testing: Beta Testing is performed by real users of the software application in a real environment. Beta testing is one of the type of User Acceptance Testing. Beta version of the software, whose feedback is needed, is released to a limited number of end-users of the product to obtain feedback on the product quality.
Integration testing: INTEGRATION TESTING is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in the interaction between integrated units. Test drivers and test stubs are used to assist in Integration Testing.
System testing: SYSTEM TESTING is a level of testing that validates the complete and fully integrated software product. The purpose of a system test is to evaluate the end-to-end system specifications. Usually, the software is only one element of a larger computer-based system.
Functional testing: FUNCTIONAL TESTING is a type of software testing whereby the system is tested against the functional requirements/specifications. Functions (or features) are tested by feeding them input and examining the output. Functional testing ensures that the requirements are properly satisfied by the application.
Load testing: Load testing is a type of non-functional testing. A load test is type of software testing which is conducted to understand the behavior of the application under a specific expected load. Load testing is performed to determine a system's behavior under both normal and at peak conditions.

Advantages of Black Box Testing
  • The test is unbiased because the designer and the tester are independent of each other.
  • The tester does not need knowledge of any specific programming languages.
  • The test is done from the point of view of the user, not the designer.
  • Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete.
Disadvantages of Black Box Testing
  • The test can be redundant if the software designer has already run a test case.
  • The test cases are difficult to design.
  • Testing every possible input stream is unrealistic because it would take a inordinate amount of time; therefore, many program paths will go untested.
3. Gray box testing: GRAY BOX TESTING is a technique to test the software product or application with partial knowledge of the internal workings of an application. The purpose of this testing is to search for defects due to improper code structure or improper functioning usage of an application
Example of Gray Box Testing would be when the codes for two units/modules are studied (White Box Testing method) for designing test cases and actual tests are conducted using the exposed interfaces (Black Box Testing method).

Gray-box testing Techniques:
Regression testing: Regression testing verifies that recent code changes haven't altered or destroyed the already existing functionality of a system. Regression testing examples include iteration regression and full regression, and both can be covered with manual and automated test cases.
Pattern Testing: A pattern tester is someone who tests a sewing pattern and provides feedback to the pattern designer before it is launched into the market . This process is done in order to check the sewing instructions, as well as the fit of the pattern on different body types, before the pattern is released to the public.
Orthogonal array testing: Orthogonal array testing. Orthogonal array testing is a black box testing technique that is a systematic, statistical way of software testing. It is used when the number of inputs to the system is relatively small, but too large to allow for exhaustive testing of every possible input to the systems.
Matrix testing: A matrix is a concise organizer of simple tests, especially useful for function tests and domain tests. It groups test cases that are essentially the same. For example, for most input fields, you'll do a series of the same tests, checking how the field handles boundaries, unexpected characters, function keys, etc

Advantages of Gray Box Testing:
  • Gray-box testing provides combined benefits of both white-box and black-box testing
  • It is based on functional specification, UML Diagrams, Database Diagrams or architectural view
  • Gray-box tester handles can design complex test scenario more intelligently
  • The added advantage of Gray-box testing is that it maintains the boundary between independent testers and developers.
Disadvantages of Gray Box Testing:
  • In Gray-box testing, complete white box testing cannot be done due to inaccessible source code/binaries.
  • It is difficult to associate defects when we perform Gray-box testing for a distributed system.

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